According to studies conducted in Europe, ginkgo helps increase the flow of blood to the extremities and to the brain. For this reason, it is known to be helpful in improving mental acuity and memory function. It is posited that ginkgo may help in the treatment of early Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, it may be helpful in treating circulation problems such as intermittent claudication. Problems such as tinnitus and vertigo may also benefit from treatment with ginkgo if their origins are vascular. Gingko works by inhibiting the stickiness (aggregation) of platelets. Additionally, gingko works as an antioxidant. It is able to do this because its flavone glycosides represent a balanced group of bioflavonoids. The terpene lactones, bilobalide and ginkgolide, help improve blood circulation and work to inhibit the platelet activating factor (PAF) while protecting the nerve cells. An excess of PAF will cause plateletes to clump. This condition is associated with the damage of nerve cells.